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Thursday, October 13, 2011

Wilms tumor cancer in children

Thursday, October 13, 2011
Disease can come to anyone, not least in children. One of the dangerous disease that attack children is wilms tumor cancer. what is wilms tumor?

Wilms tumor is a kidney cancer that often occurs in children. Wilms tumor is also known as nephroblastoma, the most common malignant tumor affecting the kidney of children. The peak time of wilms tumor is about 3 to 4 years of age and rarely occurs after the age of 6 years. Although it can attack both kidneys, the disease tends to affect only one kidney. Its name is referring to the German surgeon Dr. Max Wilms (1867–1918) who first described this tumor.

Wilms tumor is believed to develop from cells of the immature kidney. Imagery technique may help physicians to determine the extent of cancer in wilms tumor and its treatment plan. The possibility of cure in children with Wilms tumor is very big.

symptoms of wilms tumor
Wilms tumor may not be detected since the beginning because it can grow without causing pain. When it's big, wilms tumor is generally made it known before having a chance to spread (metastasize) to other body parts. Children that is attacked may have symptoms:
1. abdominal swelling
2. There is a lump in the abdomen that can be felt
3. fever
4. Blood in the urine
5. Poor appetite
6. High blood pressure
7. constipation
8. Abdominal pain
9. nausea

what causes wilms tumor
The exact cause is still unknown. However, it is believed that cancer arises when the child is still developing in the womb and some cells that should form the kidneys fail to develop properly. Contrary, the cells proliferate in a primitive way, and became tumor that appears more clearly when the child was about 3 or 4 years.

Some cancers (including tumors) results from mutations in genes that control growth that let the cells proliferate uncontrollably. In some cases, cancer is caused by genetic defects are passed down from parent to child.

treatment wilms tumor
Treatments and medications in wilms tumor
The standard treatment for Wilms' tumor are surgery and chemotherapy. The results of laboratory tests are needed to determine whether radiation therapy is also required. Because this type of cancer is rare, doctors may suggest parents seek care in children's cancer center that has experience in treating cancer.

Surgery
Surgical removal of kidney tissue called a nephrectomy. Various types of nephrectomy include:

1. Simple nephrectomy.
In this operation, surgeons remove the kidney is attacked. The remaining kidney can increase capacity and take over the entire task of filtering the blood.

2. Partial nephrectomy.
Removal of the tumor and part of the kidney tissue. This is usually done when the other kidney is damaged or no longer exists.

3. Radical nephrectomy.
Doctors take kidney and surrounding tissues, including the ureter and adrenal gland. Lymph nodes in the vicinity can also be lifted.

At surgery, a pediatrician examined both kidneys and the abdominal cavity to prove the existence of cancer. Samples of kidney, lymph nodes and any tissue that looks abnormal is removed and examined under a microscope to identify cancer cells.

If both kidneys need to be removed, the child will need dialysis until he/she was healthy enough to transplant. Doctors who specialize in pathology will examine the tumor cells under a microscope and look for characteristics that indicate whether the cancer is aggressive or vulnerable to chemotherapy.

wilms tumor chemotherapy
Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. This treatment led to cell division rapidly so normal cells are exposed to change quickly, as well as cancer cells. Consequently, these drugs can have side effects nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, hair loss and white blood cell count is low. Most side effects will improve after the drug was stopped and reduced during therapy.

At high doses, chemotherapy can destroy bone marrow cells. If a child will undergo high-dose chemotherapy, your doctor may tell the child that marrow cells are removed first. After chemotherapy, the marrow will be returned through an intravenous line, the procedure is called autologous bone marrow reinfusion.

wilms tumor radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses X-rays or other sources of high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Possible side effects include: nausea, fatigue and skin irritation. Diarrhea may occur after radiation to the abdomen.

gradually treatment
1. Cancer Stage I or II
If the cancer is confined to the kidney or nearby structures and types of tumor cells is not aggressive, the child will undergo removal of kidney tissue and some lymph nodes near the affected kidney. After that, followed by chemotherapy. Some stage II cancers are also treated with radiation.

2. Cancer Stage III or IV
If the cancer has spread within the stomach and can not be completely removed without endangering the structure as the main blood vessel, the radiation will be added to surgery and chemotherapy. The child may undergo chemotherapy before surgery to shrink the tumor.

3. Cancer Stage V
If tumor cells are present in both kidneys, the cancer of both kidneys will be removed during surgery and lymph nodes taken to see whether it contains the tumor cells. Chemotherapy is given to shrink the remaining tumor. Repeated surgery to remove the tumor as much as possible and functioning renal tissue is maintained. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can be given next.

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